Continuous gutter-shaped metal edge bindings like those known from Vendel, Välsgarde, and Thorsbjerg were obsolete by the Viking Age. In the vast majority of finds there is no evidence of edge reinforcement, which must therefore have been absent, or of a
References to Painted Shields "Norse-Icelandic literature mentions shield paintings which inspired Bragi, a ninth century Norwegian Poet. The Story of Thor's fishing expedition is reputed to have been painted on shields and carved in the Halls of Iceland
Viking round shields: The sagas specifically mention linden wood for shield construction, although finds from graves shows mostly other timbers, such as fir, alder and poplar. These timbers are not very dense and are light in the hand, they were often rei
Migration period shield, National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen: he sagas specifically mention linden wood for shield construction. Vikings often reinforced their shields with leather or, occasionally, iron around the rim.