The 1875 "Aerial Steamer" was a tandem-wing monoplane by Thomas Moy. It was unmanned and travelled in a wide circle, tethered to central post. During one demonstration, its engine lifted the craft 6 inches off the ground.
Dorand 1908 - Early-flying-machines-25
The UnMuseum - Strange Aircraft from the Early Years of Flight
“Original IL - Robert Myers of Rockford, IL, has invented an ornithopter, which he designed after an intensive study of heavy birds in flight, particularly the great horned owl. The above photo shows Myers seated in his.