Biopsychology

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Basal Ganglia and Related Structures

Basal Ganglia and Related Structures

The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion.

The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion.

Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background. Originally the term meant that the phenotypic effect of one gene is masked by a different gene (locus).[1] Thus, epistatic mutations have different effects in combination than individually. The gene for total baldness is epistatic to those for blond hair or red hair. The hair-colour genes are hypostatic to the baldness gene.

Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background. Originally the term meant that the phenotypic effect of one gene is masked by a different gene (locus).[1] Thus, epistatic mutations have different effects in combination than individually. The gene for total baldness is epistatic to those for blond hair or red hair. The hair-colour genes are hypostatic to the baldness gene.

Ionotropic receptors are also known as ligand-gated ion channels. They combine receptor and channel functions into a single protein complex.

Ionotropic receptors are also known as ligand-gated ion channels. They combine receptor and channel functions into a single protein complex.

Basal ganglia

Basal ganglia

Base of the forebrain. Substantia nigra - dopamine.

Base of the forebrain. Substantia nigra - dopamine.

Saccadic eye movement is primarily controlled by the frontal cortex. The anti-saccade (AS) task is a gross estimation of injury or dysfunction of the frontal lobe, by assessing the brain’s ability to inhibit the reflexive saccade.

Saccadic eye movement is primarily controlled by the frontal cortex. The anti-saccade (AS) task is a gross estimation of injury or dysfunction of the frontal lobe, by assessing the brain’s ability to inhibit the reflexive saccade.

Putamen, caudatenucleus, amygdala = purple. Thalamus = orange. ase of the forebrain (telencephalon). The putamen and caudate nucleus together form the dorsal striatum. It is also one of the structures that comprises the basal ganglia. Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. The main function of the putamen is to regulate movements and influence various types of learning. It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin.

Putamen, caudatenucleus, amygdala = purple. Thalamus = orange. ase of the forebrain (telencephalon). The putamen and caudate nucleus together form the dorsal striatum. It is also one of the structures that comprises the basal ganglia. Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. The main function of the putamen is to regulate movements and influence various types of learning. It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin.


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