Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of 5 Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel. Since 1901, it has been awarded to those…
2014 Malala Yousafzai: 1997: Pakistan and UK. After having suffered an attack on her life by Taliban gunmen in 2012, she become a leading advocate for girls' rights. Already at eleven years of age she fought for girls' right to education. Injustices perpetrated against children contribute to the spread of conflicts to future generations.
2014 Kailash Satyarthi: 1954: India. Following the tradition of Mahatma Gandhi, he has waged a peaceful struggle to stop children being exploited as labour instead of attending school. He has also contributed to the development of international conventions on the rights of children.
2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). The use of chemical weapons dates back to WW I. Their use was prohibited in 1925 but they have since been used by both nations and terrorists. An international convention that prohibited manufacture and storage of chemical weapons came into effect in 1997. That same year, the OPCW was formed for international cooperation to ensure that the convention is honoured through inspections and destruction of chemical weapons
2012 European Union (EU). After WW II, reconciliation between Germany and France was necessary to foster peace. The two countries together with four others built the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. This expanded to include other countries during the 1970s and 1980s with democracy as a prerequisite. An ever-broader cooperation since 1993 formed the European Union. After the fall of European communist regimes, the EU was able to expand to include countries in Central and Eastern Europe
2010 Liu Xiaobo: 1955-: China, "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China". He took part in the student protests on Tiananmen Square in 1989 and for that was sentenced to two years in prison. He later criticised China's one-party system and served three years in a labour camp. In 2008, he was co-author of a manifesto which advocates gradual shifting of China's political and legal system towards democracy for which he was sentenced to eleven years' imprisonment.
2009 Barack H. Obama: 1961-: USA. 44th President of the United States of America. He had been in office for less than eight months when he was awarded the Prize. Among the reasons it gave, the Nobel Committee lauded Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples". Emphasis was also given to his support - in word and deed - for the vision of a world free from nuclear weapons
2008 Martti Ahtisaari: 1937-: former President of Finland and UN Commissioner for Namibia, "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts". He was a major contributor when Namibia achieved independence in 1989-90, arbitrated in Kosovo in 1999 and 2005-07, and helped to bring the long-lasting conflict in the Aceh province in Indonesia to an end in 2005.
2007 Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr. 1948-: former US Vice President. The award was grounded in his tireless campaign to put the climate crisis on the political agenda and to obtain and disseminate information about the climate challenge. In part this has been through a book “Earth in the Balance” and film “An Inconvenient Truth”. He is probably the single individual who has done most to rouse the public and governments that action had to be taken to meet the climate challenge
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) founded in 1988 in New York, USA by the UN General Assembly "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change".
2006 Grameen Bank founded in 1976 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It assumes that even the poorest can manage their financial affairs and development by small long-term loans on easy terms. When the Bank was awarded the Prize, more than seven million borrowers had been granted loans. The average amount borrowed was 100 dollars, the repayment percentage was very high and 95% of loans went to women. The bank has since been a source of inspiration for similar institutions in over 100 countries
2006 Muhammad Yunus: 1940-: Bangladesh. Role: Founder of Grameen Bank whose objective since its establishment in 1983 has been to grant poor people small loans on easy terms, so-called micro-credit. He felt that poverty means being deprived of all human value. He regards micro-credit both as a human right and as an effective means of emerging from poverty
2005 Mohamed ElBaradei: 1942-: Egypt. Director General of IAEA since 1997. The Committee pointed to the important work he and the IAEA had done to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that civil use of nuclear power takes place under reliable international control. They also noted how much he had done to strengthen the IAEA as an organization and to increase accession to the nuclear non-proliferation regime.
2005 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) founded in 1957 in Vienna, Austria "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way". When the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) entered into force in 1970, the IAEA became the most important instrument for compliance. The IAEA was for instance the first to show that North Korea was developing nuclear weapons.
2004 Wangari Muta Maathai: 1940-2011: Kenya. In 1977 she started a movement to counter deforestation that was threatening the agricultural population. It encouraged women to plant trees and to think ecologically. The “Green Belt Movement” spread to other African countries contributing to planting over thirty million trees. She had a broader perspective for democracy, women's rights and international solidarity. In the words of the Committee: "She thinks globally and acts locally."
2003 Shirin Ebadi: 1947-: Iran. As a lawyer she was Iran's first female judge. After Khomeini's revolution in 1979 she was dismissed. She opened a legal practice defending people who were being persecuted. In 2000 she was imprisoned for having criticized her country's hierocracy. She took up the struggle for fundamental human rights and especially the rights of women and children. She also wanted to withdraw political power from the clergy and advocated the separation of religion and state.
2002 Jimmy Carter: 1924-: USA. He was 39th President of the United States of America. The high-point of his presidential term was the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel. Thereafter, he experienced setbacks in his foreign policy such as the conflict with Iran after the fall of the Shah and a new cold war with the Soviet Union after their invasion of Afghanistan. As ex-President, he conducted an active peace and mediation campaign for human rights and working for social welfare.
2001 Kofi Annan: 1938-: Ghana. He was awarded the Peace Prize for having revitalized the UN as Secretary General and for having given priority to human rights. The Committee also recognized his commitment to the struggle to contain the spreading of the HIV virus in Africa and his declared opposition to international terrorism.
2001 United Nations “for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world". It came as no surprise that the United Nations was favoured on the occasion of the Peace Prize centenary in 2001, together with the organization's Secretary-General Kofi Annan. In previous years the Committee had agreed on a total of thirteen Laureates with connections with the United Nations. Since 1970 the advancement of human rights has been an increasingly important United Nations concern.
2000 Kim Dae-jung: 1925-2009: South Korea. As South Korea's President, he was awarded the Prize for his "sunshine policy" towards North Korea. He sought to lay the foundations for peaceful reunification. The Committee also valued his long and courageous struggle for democracy and human rights in his own country. In 2000, he arranged a summit meeting with North Korea's leader, one result of which was that family members who had been separated for over 40 years were allowed to meet
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières founded in 1971 in Paris, France. It is is an independent, neutral and impartial emergency aid organization working both at scenes of natural disasters and in theatres of war. It is a frequent critic of violence and violations of human rights. It annually sends out 2,500 doctors and nurses who are well assisted by 15,000 local employees in 80 countries. Each year it carries out 6 million consultations and 200,000 surgical interventions